Charles Mingus Jr. (1922-1979) was a jazz double bass player with a career spanning three decades. He also played piano, composed, and worked with jazz bands. As a major proponent of collective improvisation, he is considered to be one of the greatest jazz musicians in history. His collaborations included such luminaries as Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Charlie Parker, and Dizzy Gillespie. His work touched on multiple genres including bebop, hard bop, third stream, and free jazz.