The intensifying effects of climate change have given a new sense of urgency as society works to reduce its 200-year dependence on fossil fuel, and a key part of this critical energy shift will be the development of renewable alternatives. This vital energy shift, however, does not come without a cost. Each renewable technology, from wind turbines to solar panels to rechargeable storage batteries will require a wide range in natural resources, and the search for key elements such as lithium, cobalt, and rare earth minerals may be the 21st century equivalent of the oil booms of the early 1900s. In this class, we will outline the role of geology in determining the location of important resources, explore different mining and extraction technologies, and discuss some of the environmental costs associated with developing a more renewable energy future.