On September 21, 1866, at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, the 10th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army was created by order of Congress. Although several African-American regiments were raised during the Civil War as part of the Union Army (including the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry and the many United States Colored Troops Regiments), the “Buffalo Soldiers” were established by Congress as the first peacetime all-black regiment in the regular U.S. Army. They served with extraordinary bravery–and largely without recognition–on the western frontier, and continued to serve with honor for the next 80+ years. On September 6, 2005, Mark Matthew, the oldest surviving Buffalo Soldier, died at the age of 111. He was buried at Arlington National Cemetery. This two-session mini-course will look at their history.