Ancient Indian petroglyphs (symbols carved or pecked on rocks) and pictographs (rock paintings) are claimed by some to be forms of writing for which meanings are known. But are such claims supported by archaeology or by Native Americans? Allen Dart illustrates how petroglyph and pictograph styles changed through time and over different parts of the southwest both before and after non-Indian peoples entered the region. He discusses how the same rock art symbol may be interpreted differently from popular, scientific, and modern Native American perspectives.